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Niigata Toyama Ishikawa Fukui Yamanashi Nagano Gifu Shizuoka Mie Shiga Nara Tottori Shimane Okayama Hiroshima Tokushima Kagawa Ehime Fukuoka Saga Nagasaki Kumamoto Miyazaki Kagoshima See this Japanese Wikipedia article for all the changes in that period.
See also the English Wikipedia List of Japanese prefectures by population Historical demography of prefectures of Japan for lists of prefectures since the late s.
Here are some territories that were lost after World War II. This doesn't include all the territories of the Empire of Japan such as Manchukuo.
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Participants also noted that Japan's medical facilities are vulnerable to "chaos," noting that many hospital beds and resources in the Tokyo area were already being used to care for the infected patients from the Diamond Princess.
They reiterated their warning that a rush of alarmed, uninfected outpatients with light symptoms of the disease could overwhelm hospitals and turn waiting rooms into "breeding grounds" of COVID This included controversial requests to suspend such large-scale gatherings as community events and school operations, as well as to limit patients with light cold symptoms from visiting medical facilities to prevent them from overwhelming hospital resources.
First, the new policies advised local medical institutions that it is better for people with mild cold-like symptoms to rely on bed rest at home, rather than seeking medical help from clinics or hospitals.
The policy also recommended that people at a higher risk of infection — including the elderly and patients with pre-existing conditions — avoid hospital visits for non-treatment purposes, such as by ordering prescriptions over the telephone instead of in person.
Second, the new policies allowed general medical facilities in areas of a rapid COVID outbreak to accept patients suspected of infection.
Before this, patients could only get tested at specialized clinics after making an appointment with consultation centres to prevent the transmission of the disease.
Government officials revised the previous policy after acknowledging that such specialized institutions would be overwhelmed during a large cluster.
Third, the policy asked those with any cold symptoms to take time off from work and avoid leaving their homes. Government officials urged companies to let employees work from home and commute at off-peak hours.
The Japanese government also made an official request to local governments and businesses to cancel large-scale events. On 27 February, Abe requested the closure of all schools from 2 March to the end of spring vacations, which usually conclude in early April.
The next day, the Japanese government announced plans to create a fund to help companies subsidize workers who need to take days off to look after their children while schools are closed.
On 27 February, the Japanese government also announced plans to expand the national health insurance system so that it covers COVID tests. On 9 March, the Ministry of Health reconvened the Expert Meeting after the two week "critical moment.
Consequently, the participants asked the government to remain vigilant in quickly identifying and containing smaller clusters.
With more COVID outbreaks around the world, the panel also proposed that new infections from abroad could initiate a "second wave" of the disease in Japan.
On 9 March, the Health Ministry published a disease forecast for each prefecture and instructed local governments to prepare their hospitals to accommodate its patient estimates.
It predicts that the virus peak in each prefecture would occur three months after the first reported case of local transmission.
The Ministry estimates that at the peak Tokyo would see 45, outpatients and 20, inpatients per day, of whom will be in severe condition.
For Hokkaido , the figure is 18, outpatients and 10, inpatients daily, of whom about will be in severe condition. On 5 February, the Abe Administration's coronavirus task force initiated political debate on the introduction of emergency measures to combat the COVID outbreak a day after the British cruise ship Diamond Princess was asked to quarantine.
Initial debate focused on constitutional reform due to the task force's apprehension that the Japanese Constitution may restrict the government's ability to enact such compulsory measures as quarantines on the grounds that it violated human rights.
He met separately with the heads of five opposition parties on 4 March to promote a "united front" in passing the reforms. The National Diet passed the amendment on 13 March, making it effective for the next two years.
During such a period, governors of affected areas will receive the following powers: 1 to instruct residents to avoid unnecessary outings unless they are workers in such essential services as health care and public transportation; 2 to restrict the use or request the temporary closure of businesses and facilities, including schools, social welfare facilities, theatres, music venues and sports stadiums; 3 to expropriate private land and buildings for the purpose of erecting new hospitals; and 4 to requisition medical supplies and food from companies that refuse to sell them, punish those that hoard or do not comply, and force firms to help transport emergency goods.
Under the law, the Japanese government does not have the authority to enforce citywide lockdowns.
Apart from individual quarantine measures, officials cannot restrict the movement of people in order to contain the virus. On 25 March, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare announced that the daily number of confirmed cases in Tokyo increased from 17 to 41 cases compared to the day before.
The panel of medical experts concluded that there was a "high probability of an expansion of infections" within the country due to an increase in the number of infected patients returning from Europe and the United States between 11 March and 23 March.
On 30 March, Koike requested residents to refrain from nonessential outings for the next two weeks due to a continued increase in infections in Tokyo.
Experts were still concerned that infected patients could overwhelm the medical service system before an explosive spread of the virus as COVID designated hospitals in major cities reached near capacity.
They requested the government to secure more hospital beds for patients and transfer those with mild or no symptoms to outside housing facilities.
On 2 April, the Ministry of Health issued a notice that urged non-critical COVID patients to move out of hospitals and stay at home or at facilities designated by local governments.
Nishiura added that Tokyo was about 10 days to two weeks away from a large-scale outbreak. On 10 April, Koike announced closure requests for six categories of businesses in Tokyo.
She also asked restaurants to limit opening hours to between 5 a. The request was to take effect on 12 April and promised government subsidies for businesses that cooperated with it.
Any rate below 60 percent would result in an increase in the number of cases. On 16 April, Abe expanded the state of emergency declaration to include every prefecture within the country.
On 21 May, the state of emergency is suspended in 3 prefectures in Kinki after they had cleared the threshold of having new infections below 0. On 16 February, Abe convened the Novel Coronavirus Expert Meeting to incorporate members of the Japanese medical community into his decision-making process.
On 12 February, Abe announced that the government would secure billion yen for emergency lending and loan guarantees to small and medium enterprises affected by the COVID outbreak.
Under this policy, the Japanese government instructed manufactures to sell facial masks directly to the government, which would then deliver them to residents.
On 17 February, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare asked people who have had a fever over Italy only tested two people who were ill and suspected of being infected, and they tested negative, they immediately released all the remaining passengers.
On 26 February, the Minister of Health Katsunobu Kato stated in the National Diet that 6, samples were tested between 18 and 24 February, averaging samples per day.
Some representatives questioned the discrepancy between the actual number of people tested and the claim in the prior week that 3, samples could be tested per day.
On the same day, more doctors reported that public health centres had refused to test some patients. The Japan Medical Association announced that it would start a nationwide investigation and plan to cooperate with the government to improve the situation.
The strict constraints on testing for the virus by Japanese health authorities drew accusations from critics such as Masahiro Kami that Abe wanted to "downplay the number of infections or patients because of the upcoming Olympics.
This has led some experts to question Japan's official case numbers. How many cases are lurking and just aren't being caught? A decision to expand testing was made on 13 April According to data released by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japanese authorities conducted PCR tests of as of 13 March and as of 17 March, except for those returning from China by charter flights and passengers on the cruise ship.
The number of tests in Japan seems to be very small compared to the countries with exorbitant tests such as China, South Korea and Italy, but it has never been smaller than the other countries.
On March 5, Japan announced that it will strengthen quarantine for new entrants from China and South Korea and add some areas of Iran to the target area.
The Chinese government showed their understanding of the decision, but the Korean government blamed Japan violently, saying that these were "unreasonable and excessive measures.
There are various problems arising in connection with the Emergency Supplementary Income policies promoted by the Japanese government. At first, there were many obstacles to rapid driving force as the , yen per household policy was changed to the , yen per population policy.
In addition, there are some uncomfortable parts that make it easier to evaluate postal delivery applications more faster than online applications.
In the case of postal delivery, it is possible to apply for each household more smoothly, but when applying online, separate paperwork for inspection are required for each local government office.
In addition, since the application process for management subsidies is complicated, there are also side effects of financial disadvantages for small business owners and individual business owners.
Due to opposition from the opposition party and liberals who say that the national and local governments will get to know personal information, the Individual Number has not spread easily and is not obligatory to link with other personal information such as bank accounts.
Moreover, Prime Minister Abe's cloth mask distribution policy is also problematic, so there is some lack of clarity in budgeting. Furthermore, one of the companies involved Mask supply production that are suspected ghost companies.
Besides, the problem of maintaining quality, which was the trigger, remains under the government's burden, and the issue of tax waste is pointed out.
Originally, he was promoting masks to Fukushima and Yamagata prefectures, but the Ministry of Health and Welfare, who had trouble finding a mask supplier due to a sudden decision, bought them.
Likewise, there were several news reports that showed signs for missing numbers of infection statistics in Japan could be explained by other sources of statistics.
The medical task-force advising the government, known as the Novel Coronavirus Expert Meeting, has adopted a three-pronged strategy to contain and mitigate COVID that includes 1 early detection of and early response to clusters through contact tracing; 2 early patient diagnosis and enhancement of intensive care and the securing of a medical service system for the severely ill; and 3 behaviour modification of citizens.
It is led by university professors Oshitani Hitoshi and Nishiura Hiroshi and consists of a contact tracing team and a surveillance team from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases NIID , a data analysis team from Hokkaido University , a risk management team from Tohoku University , and an administration team.
After the teams determine the original source of infection, the ministry and local government officials enact countermeasures to locate, test, and place under medical surveillance anybody who may have come into contact with an infected person.
They can also file requests to suspend infected businesses or restrict events from taking place there. The Ministry also determined that patients that did infect another person tended to spread it to multiple people and form infection clusters when they were in certain environments.
If you do nothing, the cluster will grow out of control. But as long as you identify a cluster small enough to contain, then the virus will die out.
The experts also theorized that crowded trains did not form clusters because people riding public transportation in Japan usually do not engage in conversations.
During times when the number of infected patients rises to such an extent that individual contract tracing alone cannot contain a COVID outbreak, the government will request the broad closure of such high-risk businesses.
During the initial stages of the outbreak, medical experts recommended the government to focus COVID testing for contact tracing purposes and patients with the following symptoms: 1 cold symptoms and a fever of at least On 1 April, medical experts requested the government to secure more hospital beds for patients and transfer those with mild or no symptoms to outside housing facilities to focus treatment on the severely-ill.
The Japanese government's medical task-force anticipates multiple waves of COVID to arrive in the country for at least the next three years, with each one prompting the public to engage in a cycle of restricting and easing movement.
During such periods, the governors of affected areas can request citizens to avoid unnecessary outings and temporarily close certain businesses and facilities.
Since the government cannot enact compulsory measures to enforce these requests, it has instead embarked on a social engineering program to train its citizens to comply with them on a voluntary basis during current and future state of emergencies.
To reduce person-to-person contact, the government has instructed the public to refrain from going to high-risk environments the Three Cs: closed spaces, crowded places, and close-contact settings and events involving movement between different areas of the country.
The government also promoted such work-style reforms as teleworking and staggering commuting hours, while improving the country's distance learning infrastructure for children.
However, the program expands these precautions to cover more mundane activities by requesting people to engage in such activities as wearing masks during all conversations, refraining from talking when using public transportation, and eating next to one another rather than facing one another.
The following are examples of the spread of infections for five of the eight regions in Japan. The first case was identified in Hokkaido on 28 January ,   and the first case of an infected person in Hokkaido was on 14 February.
As of 10 July , Iwate prefecture has not reported any cases. On 13 February , three confirmed cases were announced in the Kanto region, and one case was confirmed in each of Kanagawa, Tokyo, and Chiba.
On 6 March , it was confirmed that infected people were reported in 5 prefectures, including Tochigi and Saitama. On 21 March, a total of people were identified as infected in Tokyo, and a total of people were confirmed in the Kanto region.
The first case was identified in Aichi on 26 January ,  and the first case of an infected person in Aichi was on 14 February. Governors of other prefectures have followed this example.
As the second-largest population center in Japan with the highest population density in the Kansai region , this has been effective to reduce the spread of the virus in this region.
Reduced international tourism to Kyoto due to travel restrictions and cancellations of tour groups has also reduced spread of virus but the tourism sector is struggling as a result.
On 24 May, Fukuoka Prefecture announced a total of four confirmed cases, including one re-positive case confirmed in Fukuoka City, and three infected cases related to Kitakyushu City.
Abe said that "the new coronavirus is having a major impact on tourism, the economy and our society as a whole". In Q1 GDP there was 0. The aviation, retail and tourism sectors have reported decreased sales and some manufacturers have complained about disruption to Chinese factories, logistics and supply chains.
On the same day the Nagoya Expressway Public Corporation announced plans to temporarily close some toll gates and let employees work from their homes after an employee staffing the toll gates was diagnosed positive for SARS-CoV The outbreak has affected professional sports in Japan.
Nippon Professional Baseball 's preseason games and the Haru Basho sumo tournament in Osaka were announced to be held behind closed doors , while the J.
League football and Top League rugby suspended or postponed play entirely. The outbreak expansion has affected sports schedule of school in Japan.
Since these outbreaks led to concerns over the health risk of the students, sporting event, such as baseball, basketball, soccer, in school were suspended or postponed play entirely, due to unexpected postpone of education schedule by nationwide outbreaks, as well as other sports events decided to delay its season.
In March, it was announced that the Games would be postponed by a year, for the first time in the history of the modern Olympics.
Two Yomiuri Giants players have tested positive for the new coronavirus, the Central League team announced on June 3, casting a shadow over Nippon Professional Baseball's plan to start the season on June On 26 February, Abe suggested that major sporting, cultural and other events should be cancelled, delayed or scaled down for about two weeks amid the new coronavirus outbreak.
A number of major amusement parks announced temporary closures. Affected by the shortage of outsourced staff due to the COVID outbreak, many Japanese animated films and TV shows announced changes or postponed broadcasts due to production problems, including A Certain Scientific Railgun T deferred for broadcast, changed to rebroadcast , Asteroid in Love , A3!
Delay extension , Kukuriraige -Sanxingdui Fantasy- Delay extension , etc. Not only anime series but also drama series have been silently refrained production to prevent the spread of infection, and most of telecasting stations are transmitting works from past years.
Reruns of old episodes began airing on April 26, ; the staff will reveal at a later date when new episodes will return.
On 27 February , Prime Minister Shinzo Abe requested that all Japanese elementary, junior high, and high schools close until early April to help contain the virus.
Along with the school suspension, the online education was being piloted in some areas where the health crisis was not severe, but there was a concern that the education gap was widening in each region due to the limited online environment in Japan.
Due to the sudden public health crisis, school closures are taking place in the middle of school, and education gaps in each region and childcare problems in the home have led to difficulties in education.